Why is the Rioting Mob case described by Smart supposed to present a problem for the utilitarian?

Firstly in order to answer this question we must have a clear view as to what constitutes utilitarianism conceptually: ‘The term ‘utilitarianism’ stems from the idea of utility, meaning social utility or welfare, or ‘good of society.’ The ‘social utility’ that utilitarianism is referring to is the optimisation of pleasure over pain for everyone.’[1] Utilitarianism is a branch of consequentialist normative ethics whereby the ‘rightness’ … Continue reading Why is the Rioting Mob case described by Smart supposed to present a problem for the utilitarian?

“Unlike mass, colour is not objective.” The views of Locke and Berkeley.

This question concerns the differences between the primary and secondary qualities of objects and how these differences relate to the idea of objectivity. According to Locke, mass is deemed to be a primary quality whilst colour is considered a secondary quality. Locke defines primary qualities as independent and necessary for existence; whereas secondary qualities are subjective. However, Berkeley defines primary and secondary qualities as interlinked … Continue reading “Unlike mass, colour is not objective.” The views of Locke and Berkeley.

Shamanism, Spirits, and The Quest For Knowledge

Shaman or saman is a term which originates from the Tungusian languages, first heard from explorers in the seventeenth century who spent time among the Tungusian tribes of eastern Siberia (Laufer, 1917, p.361).  The term itself means “one who is excited, moved, raised” (Walsh, 1989, p.2), commonly used by anthropologists to refer to those individuals of a particular society who use ecstatic and visionary states … Continue reading Shamanism, Spirits, and The Quest For Knowledge

Breaking free from illusion

As we proceed further towards our ultimate reconnection with source, an ancient consciousness is arising once again to lead our planet back to a state of harmony and peace.  This is through the energetic field of each individualised being who is willing to take the necessary steps towards their own purification, and grasp the personal integrity that lies just outside of shedding one’s own disharmonic … Continue reading Breaking free from illusion

Meditation: A case study from an occupational science stand point.

In this essay the link between activity and well-being will be looked at through the lens of meditation and mindfulness practice. Firstly the concept of well-being will be defined for use in this analysis. This definition, whilst not necessarily fact and open to interpretation, will form the basis of what will be considered ‘well-being’ and thus govern how activity impacts on the specific criteria determined … Continue reading Meditation: A case study from an occupational science stand point.