Why is the Rioting Mob case described by Smart supposed to present a problem for the utilitarian?

Firstly in order to answer this question we must have a clear view as to what constitutes utilitarianism conceptually: ‘The term ‘utilitarianism’ stems from the idea of utility, meaning social utility or welfare, or ‘good of society.’ The ‘social utility’ that utilitarianism is referring to is the optimisation of pleasure over pain for everyone.’[1] Utilitarianism is a branch of consequentialist normative ethics whereby the ‘rightness’ … Continue reading Why is the Rioting Mob case described by Smart supposed to present a problem for the utilitarian?

“Unlike mass, colour is not objective.” The views of Locke and Berkeley.

This question concerns the differences between the primary and secondary qualities of objects and how these differences relate to the idea of objectivity. According to Locke, mass is deemed to be a primary quality whilst colour is considered a secondary quality. Locke defines primary qualities as independent and necessary for existence; whereas secondary qualities are subjective. However, Berkeley defines primary and secondary qualities as interlinked … Continue reading “Unlike mass, colour is not objective.” The views of Locke and Berkeley.

Was Machiavelli a Realist?

Machiavelli can be considered a realist in the overarching sense to which the term constitutes a varied collection of thought concerning the way in which international actors conduct themselves on the international stage. Distinction should be made nonetheless between different types of realist thinking, principally between that of classical realist thought and neorealism. There are some fundamental differences between Machiavelli’s ideas on how states should … Continue reading Was Machiavelli a Realist?

Gender in Hip-hop

When exploring gender in Hip-Hop two things are blatantly obvious to me. Hip-Hop’s representation of what it is to be male or female is incredibly diverse and incredibly complicated. On the one hand you have an overwhelming masculine and feminine discourse that seems to pertain to the stereotypical white supremacist notion of black pathology. Yet coexisting amongst this seemingly racist narrative you have intricate and … Continue reading Gender in Hip-hop